A human stands and lives, his organism moves and regenerates and is able to multiply – these are the functions of different systems. Though every system achieves its own goal, together they normal the functioning of an organism.
The respiratory and cardiovascular systems cooperate in order to feed the organism with nutritive materials and cleaning it from dangerous substances. Because the whole body depends on the constant gaseous exchange, the features of this cooperation affect it fully.
The cardiovascular system transports nutritive substances from the digestive system and oxygen from the respiratory system and provides tissues with clearance from the cardiovascular system and harmful substances. All alive cells of the body are involved in oxidative metabolism. This is a process when every cell uses oxygen for turning the energy from nutritive substances into suitable.
Without oxygen some cells can “temporarily stop” all activities and remain alive for several hours, the others die without oxygen at once.
The brain and the nervous systems need constant oxygen supply most of all. They stop functioning for several minutes after the exhaustion of the oxygen supply. The volume of oxygen needed for them equals about one-fifth of all oxygen transported in the blood.
In order to secure the functioning of the blood system, it acts like a multifunctional liquid substance. Various functions of blood have determined its composition. Blood plasma is a liquid which transports nutritive solutions, chemical substances and other components of blood. It consists of dissolved gases, including carbon dioxide, which is harmful to cells, and nitrogen.
Despite the fact that blood plasma takes at least a half of the overall blood mass, during the atmospheric pressure it has got only a little amount of dissolved oxygen. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) transport the main volume of oxygen with hemoglobin (a protein which can easily react with oxygen).
The influence of different ratios of partial pressure upon an ability of hemoglobin to connect with oxygen provides the effectivity of transportation. When the blood circulates through lungs, it meets high ratios of partial pressure.
Oxygen infiltrates red blood cells by joining hemoglobin. When blood comes to organism’s tissues, where the metabolism has lowered the partial pressure, oxygen loses an ability to join with hemoglobin. After setting free the main part of oxygen, hemoglobin reacts with carbon dioxide in order to transport it to lungs.
Red blood cells contain the enzyme (the ferment) which also takes part in the double-sided chemical reaction, in which the carbon dioxide is transported into blood plasma as a bicarbonate salt.
- Zimmermann, Kim A. “Respiratory System: Facts, Function, and Diseases.” 12 Feb. 2018. Live Science, https://www.livescience.com/22616-respiratory-system.html. Accessed 23 Apr. 2018.
- “Cardiovascular System.” Innerbody.com, http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html. Accessed 23 Apr. 2018.
- “The Respiratory System – Structure And Function.” 5 May 2013. Mada.org.il, https://www.mada.org.il/en/about/engineer/challenge/respiratory-system. Accessed 23 Apr. 2018.
- Collins, Julie-Ann. “Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation, and content: the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve.” 2015. Breathe ERS Journals, http://breathe.ersjournals.com/content/11/3/194. Accessed 23 Apr. 2018.